Gender differences in office and ambulatory control of hypertension.
Am J Med. 2008 Dec;121(12):1078-84. Banegas JR, Segura J, de la Sierra A, Gorostidi M, Rodríguez-Artalejo F, Sobrino J, de la Cruz JJ, Vinyoles E, Del Rey RH, Graciani A, Ruilope LM; Spanish Society of Hypertension ABPM Registry Investigators. Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública, Madrid, Spain.
BACKGROUND: Gender differences in hypertension control have not been explored fully.
METHODS: We studied 15,212 white men and 13,936 white women with treated hypertension who were drawn from the Spanish Ambulatory Blood Pressure Registry. For each participant, we obtained office blood pressure (BP) (average of 2 readings) and 24-hour ambulatory BP (average of measurements performed every 20 minutes during day and night).
RESULTS: Only 16.4% of women and 14.7% of men had both office (<140/90 mm Hg) and ambulatory (<130/80 mm Hg) BP controlled (P<.001). Women had a lower frequency of masked hypertension (office BP<140/90 mm Hg and ambulatory BP>/=130/80 mm Hg) than men (5.9% vs 7.9%, P<.001). Women had a higher frequency of isolated office hypertension (office BP>/=140/90 mm Hg and ambulatory BP<130/80 mm Hg) (32.5% vs 24.2%, P<.001). Although office BP control (office BP<140/90 mm Hg, regardless of ambulatory values) was similar in women and men (22.3% vs 22.6%, P=.542), ambulatory BP control (ambulatory BP<130/80 mm Hg, regardless of office values) was higher in women than in men (48.9% vs 38.9%, P<.001). After adjustment for age, number of antihypertensive drugs, hypertension duration, and risk factors, gender differences in BP control remained practically unchanged.
CONCLUSION: Ambulatory BP control was higher in women than in men. This may be due to the higher frequency of isolated office hypertension in women, and it is not explained by gender differences in other important clinical characteristics.